Objective: This study was designed primarily to estimate whether there is an association between neonatal anthropometric parameters on one hand and cord blood levels of insulin, leptin, IGF1 and lipid profile on the other hand in offspring of diabetic mothers.
Method: A total of 60 full term infants of diabetic mothers and 40 healthy infants of non-diabetic women participated in the study. Detailed anthropometric assessment of the newborn, head circumference, abdominal circumference, triceps skin fold thickness and sub scapular skin fold thickness was performed. Laboratory investigations including cord blood levels of insulin, leptin, IGF1 and lipid profile as markers for intrauterine growth were also assessed.
Results: Significant differences between infant of diabetic mothers (IODM) and the control group were detected regarding all anthropometric measures. As IODM showed significantly higher mean birth weight (3.9±0.48 vs 3.2±0.4 kg), mean neonatal ponderal index (3.1±0.32 vs 2.7±0.46), mean abdominal circumference (30.8±1.9 vs 28.5±1.32 cm), mean triceps skin fold thickness (3.5±0.58 vs 2.2±0.28 mm) and sub scapular skin fold thickness when compared to control group (3.57±0.6 vs 2.47±0.56 mm, P<0.0001 for all). Regarding the different laboratory parameters of the studied groups cord blood levels of biochemical growth factors were significantly higher in IODM when compared to control group; insulin (70.4±56.4 vs 4.48±3.7 μIU/ml), leptin (40.4±14.85 vs 12.5±6.7 ng/ml and IGF1 (131±44.8 vs 77.3±21.9 ng/ml, P<0.0001 for all). As regard fetal lipid, mean HDL was lower in infants of diabetic mothers (21.4±0.6) when compared to control group (32.8±11.5 mg/dl, P=0.02) whereas other lipid profile were the same between both groups.
Conclusion: Exposure to maternal diabetes in fetal life results in characteristic changes in neonatal anthropometric measurements and caused abnormalities of lipid and biochemical growth factors (insulin, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1) which may lead to metabolic and cardiovascular complications in later life.
20 - 22 Sep 2014
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology