Background: Prevelance of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is increasing world wide and it is associated with multiple factors.
Objective and hypotheses: We aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with type 1 DM.
Method: Clinical records of 184 patients with diabetes (018 years) admitted between January 2010 and January 2014 were analysed retrospectively. Age and season at admission, type of admission, anthropometric measurements, pubertal status, laboratory tests including, blood glucose, electrolytes, gases, HbA1c, insulin, c-peptide levels, thyroid function tests, lipid profile, thyroid and pancreas autoantibodies were recorded.
Results: Among the patients 53.9% (n=99) were girls. Mean chronological age at admission was 8.28±4.28 years. Short stature was observed in 3.2, 1.6% were overweight. More patients were prepubertal (58.1%) (P=0.019). Family history was positive for type 1 DM and type 2 DM in 9.78 and 44.6% of the patients. History for an infectious disease 3 months prior the onset of diabetes was observed in 20.4%. Type 1DM was most frequently diagnosed in fall (30.4%) and winter (30.4%), (P<0.05). In both genders age distrubution showed peak intervals between 8 and 12 years. Age distrubution didnot differ between genders. Presentation was with diabetic ketoasidosis (DKA) in 37.5% (n=69). There was no difference in gender distribution, chronological age and anthropometric measurements between the patients presenting with and without ketasidosis. Fasting c-peptide level was lower in the patients with DKA (P=0.019). Subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in 2.2 and 7.3% of the patients with and with out DKA respectively. None of the patients had overt hypothyroidism. Hashimato thyroiditis was determined in 10.3%. In 71.1% of the patients at least one antibody was positive among three (anti-GAD, ICA, AIA) pancreas antibodies.
Conclusion: Incidence of type 1 DM seems increased in relatively cold weather. Although there is no mechanistic relationship, family history for type 2 DM is high, that should be further investigated. Presentation with DKA is high, that makes relevant recognizing symptoms early.
10 - 12 Sep 2016
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology