Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and adolescence. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and severe hypoglycemia are complications of T1D and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
Objective and hypotheses: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute metabolic complications in children with T1D admitted to the children hospital in Qazvin during 20052014.
Method: In this cross sectional study, data were collected from health profiles of 228 patients that were hospitalized with acute complications of T1D during 20052014. The measurement tool was a datasheet including demographics, signs and symptoms of T1D, characteristics at the onset of disease, and characteristics during the hospitalization period. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results: Of 228 patients, 70.2% were female. The mean age at onset of disease was 7 years and 1 month. The incidence of diabetes was increased from four cases per year in 2005 to 21 cases per year in 2014. The onset of T1D was diagnosed by DKA and hyperglycemia in 94.7 and 5.3% of patients, respectively. 0.9, 28, and 71.1% of the new cases of T1D had mild, moderate, and severe DKA, respectively. Seven percent of patients were <2 years old, 20% were 25 years old, 22.6% were 58 years old, and 50.4% were ≥8 years old. The peak incidence was found to be in autumn. Of 228 patients, 50% had an infection. Mean blood glucose was 513.28±159.65 mg/dl and mean body mass index was 17.03 kg/m2.
Conclusion: A greater incidence of diabetes in females is because of their risk factors for autoimmune diseases. The high incidence of DKA at the onset of disease in the present study compared to the previous studies indicates the delay in diagnosis of T1D.
10 - 12 Sep 2016
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology