ESPE Abstracts (2016) 86 WG1.3

Gender Dysphoria and DSD

Peggy Cohen-Kettenis


Amsterdam, The Netherlands


Background: Among individuals with DSD, some conditions are more prone to develop distress about ones assigned gender (gender dysphoria; GD) than others. For instance, the percentage of gender change and GD in female-raised persons with testosterone synthesis deficiencies is around 50%, whereas GD hardly seems to occur in complete androgen deficiency syndrome. Unfortunately in many studies information on GD and gender role changes often cannot easily be determined and clinically useful information, such as potential predictors of GD, is frequently absent.

Objective and hypotheses: To describe psychosexual outcome and moderators of outcome in various DSD groups. We expect that GD is elevated as compared to the general population, that gender reassignments between 2 and 12 years predict GD, and that genital appearance at birth predicts GD.

Method: The European multidisciplinary outcome study dsd-LIFE evaluated 1061 individuals with conditions covered by the umbrella term DSD such as XY conditions with gonadal dysgenesis, androgen action or synthesis defects, XX conditions with gonadal dysgenesis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The study was conducted in 6 European countries (France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Self-reported gender experience, social gender role and GD were measured. For GD, a modified version of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale was used.

Results: We will report on psychosexual parameters, as measured by gender experience, social gender role and GD, as well as the potential role of early gender reassignments and genital ambiguity.

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