Background: Early growth trajectories are associated with childhood BMI and fat distribution as well as adulthood type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms by which early growth determines later adiposity remain unclear, but the effect may be mediated through adipocytokines.
Objective and hypotheses: We describe the association between infant growth, adolescent fat distribution and serum adipocytokines. We hypothesize that poor or rapid early growth is associated with circulating Leptin and Adiponectin levels and fat distribution by DXA.
Method: A prospective population-based birth cohort study was performed with anthropometric measurements at 0, 3, 18 and 36 months of age and follow-up at 815 years. Delta (Δ) growth SDS from 03, 018 and 036 months was calculated. Catch-down and catch-up was defined as ΔSDS by more than −0.67 and more than 0.67, respectively. Total and regional fat percentage was measured by DXA (mean age 11.0 years) in 982 children (426 girls) and serum Leptin and Adiponectin levels were analyzed. Leptin-to-Adiponectin ratio was calculated as a measure of insulin resistance. Tanner Stage and age were included as covariates.
Results: Early weight changes at each age interval (Δweight SDS, catch-up in weight, but not catch-down) were associated with android and gynoid fat% SDS (Δweight SDS: β=0.1, catch-up: β=0.3) and android-to-gynoid ratio (Δweight SDS: β=0.01, catch-up: β=0.02) in both sexes (all P<0.05). Furthermore, Δweight SDS 018 and 036 months was associated with Leptin levels and Leptin-to-Adiponectin ratio (both β=0.04, P<0.05), but not with Adiponectin levels. Android fat% SDS was positively associated with Leptin-to-Adiponectin ratio (girls: β=27%, boys: β=20%, both P<0.05) whereas gynoid fat% SDS was inversely associated with Leptin-to-Adiponectin ratio in girls (β=−23%, P<0.05), but not boys (β=−3%, P=0.85), independently of total fat% SDS.
Conclusion: Early weight gain predisposes to more abdominal than gluteofemoral fat deposition around puberty along and increased Leptin-to-Adiponectin ratio, reflecting altered fat metabolism.
10 - 12 Sep 2016
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology