Aim: To describe the clinical pattern and laboratory characteristics at presentation of a group of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus living in the Northwest region (Trakya) of Turkey.
Methods: The clinical and laboratory data of a total of 315 children who presented with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus during a 12 year period (20062018) were retrospectively analyzed based on hospital records. The data were assessed by gender and age subgroups (≤5, 610, ≥11 years).
Results: There were 161 boys (51.1%) and 154 girls (48.9%) with a mean age of 8.7±4.1 years. The age distribution was categorized as 05 years: 92 (29.2%), 610 years: 118 (37.5%) and 1118 years: 105 (33.3%). The patients were mostly diagnosed at aged 610 years but this difference was not significant. Mean duration of symptoms was 26.2±34.3 days. Although a shorter duration of symptoms was reported in younger cases (aged 05 years), no significant difference was determined. The seasonal distribution of onset was as follows: 78 (24.8%) occurred in spring, 56 (17.8%) in summer, 84 (26.7%) in autumn and 97 (30.8%) in winter. The seasonal difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Family history revealed type 1 DM in 12.4% (n=39), type 2 DM in 53.3% (n=168). One hundred and sixty two (51.4%) of all patients presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 122 (38.7%) with ketosis and 31 (9.8%) with hyperglycemia. The frequency of DKA was not significantly different between the gender and among the three age groups. Mean blood glucose level was 430.7±152.7 mg/dl and mean HbA1C level was 13.8±6.5. HbA1c levels did not differ by gender but was significantly lower in 05 aged group (P<0.05). The prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) anti-endomysium antibodies were 6.3% and 5.1% respectively, while there was no difference between gender in all groups, but anti-TPO was significantly lower in young patients (P<0.05).
Conclusion: These findings indicate that nationwide educational campaigns about the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children are needed to provide early recognition and to avoid more severe types of presentation.
27 - 29 Sep 2018
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology