Background: Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy and infancy may impair growth and neurodevelopment of the off-spring and increase infant mortality.
Objectives: To evaluate effects of iodine supplementation in pregnant, lactating women and their infants at the East of Ukraine.
Methods: Target groups: epidemiological survey pregnant (n=1052); dynamic observation lactating women; and their infants (n=183). Dietary iodine intake in population: urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) by SandellKolthoff reaction. Thyroid size: by ultrasonography. Iodine supplementation: by drugs potassium iodide 200 μg/day. Epidemiological criteria (WHO, 2001 and 2007).
Results: The median UIC (MUIC) in pregnant was 78.2 μg/l (range 17.0510.7 μg/l). MUIC in pregnant with iodine supplementation was significantly higher than in those without iodine prophylaxis: 146.9 vs 67.3 μg/l respectively (P=0.001). MUIC in lactating mothers was 91.2 μg/l (range 16.8302.3 μg/l). MUIC in mothers with iodine supplementation was higher (112.2 vs 68.8 μg/l respectively, P=0.001). Median BMIC was 101.4 μg/l in mothers with iodine supplementation vs 56.1 μg/l in lactating women without it (P=0.001). MUIC in breast-feed infants was 81.2 vs 282.0 μg/l in formula-feeding infants. MUIC in breast-feeding infants of mothers with iodine supplementation was 177.1 vs 81.5 μg/l in infants of mothers without iodine prophylaxis (P<0.001). Median BMIC was 101.4 μg/l in mothers taking iodine supplements vs women without it (56.1 μg/l, P<0.001).
Conclusions: The MUIC in pregnant, lactating mothers and their breast-feeding infants demonstrated their insufficient iodine status. Iodine supplementation in pregnant and lactating mothers improves their own iodine status and iodine status in breast-fed infants.
20 - 22 Sep 2014
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology