Background: A large proportion of the increased mortality in Turner syndrome (TS) is related to cardiovascular complications. Increased arterial stiffness may be an important predictor related to cardiovascular complications. A novel method of evaluating arterial stiffness, relatively independent of changes in blood pressure (BP), is the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI).
Objective and hypotheses: The aim of this study was to compare arterial stiffness using CAVI between TS patients and healthy controls and to evaluate for possible factors affecting arterial stiffness within the patient group.
Method: Known TS patients (n=24) with confirmed karyotypes were recruited and patients with type 2 diabetes or hypertension requiring medication were excluded. Anthropometric data, fasting blood lab and measurements of CAVI and pulse wave velocity were collected. A healthy control group (n=23) matched for age and BMI were recruited for comparison.
Results: The mean age and BMI of the TS patients were 27.0 years and 22.8 kg/m2 respectively while that of the control were 28.2 years and 22.04 kg/m2. CAVI was significantly higher in the TS patients compared to controls (6.05 vs 6.65, P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference in pulse wave velocity. Univariate analysis for factors affecting CAVI within the TS patient group showed that CAVI was associated with waist circumference (P=0.04) and systolic BP (P=0.045). There were no significant factors related to CAVI using multivariate regression analysis including age, systolic BP, waist circumference, HOMA-IR and presence of cardiac anomalies.
Conclusion: TS patients showed an increased arterial stiffness compared to age- and BMI-matched controls using CAVI measurement. Further prospective studies in larger TS patient group are mandatory in order to find significant factors related to increased arterial stiffness.
01 Oct 2015 - 03 Oct 2015