Background: The exact mechanisms on growth are not fully eluciated, but they involve insulin resistance, fetal hyperleptinemia, hypothalamic changes. The adipose tissue-derived signaling molecules include adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin. On the other hand, ghrelin is the hunger hormone and an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue.
Objective and hypotheses: This study aimed to investigate the relation between growth and serum insulin, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and resistin levels in infants of diabetic mothers during neonatal period.
Method: The mothers were diagnosed as having gestational diabetes by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed between 24 and 28 gestational weeks. Mothers were controlled by appropriate diet. Newborns of these mothers were included into the study.
Results: Mean HbA1c level between well controlled diabetic and control mothers were not significantly different. There was no significant difference between antropometrical measurements (weight, length, head circumference and mid arm circumference) at the birth. Also, biochemical parameters were similar for two groups (P>0.05). At the end of the first month there was no significant difference both antropometrical measurements and biochemical parameters for two groups (P>0.05). Δweight gain was not correlated with serum leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and resistin levels in two groups. Δweight gain was positively correlated with serum insulin levels at the birth in controls (<0.05). While there were positively correlations between Δweight gain and head circumference (<0.01), mid arm circumference (<0.01) of first month in infants of diabetic mothers, there was just positively correlation between Δweight gain and, mid arm circumference (<0.01) of first month in controls.
Conclusion: Our results indicates that serum leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and resistin levels do not affect early posnatal growth both in healthy newborns and in infants of diabetic mothers. In healthy newborns early postnatal weight gain is related to serum insulin at the birth.
10 - 12 Sep 2016
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology