ESPE Abstracts (2016) 86 WG1.1

ESPE Disorders of Sex Development Working Group (DSD)

Biological Determinants of Gender Identity

Stephen Rosenthal



Background: Numerous studies from a variety of biomedical disciplines—genetic, endocrine, and neuroanatomical—have begun to shed light on the biological underpinnings of gender identity. Results of these studies support the concept that gender identity is not simply a psychosocial construct, but likely reflects a complex interplay of biological, environmental, and cultural factors.

Objective and hypotheses: This review will highlight data from studies in genetics, a variety of DSDs, and neurobiology which support the concept that biology plays a role in gender identity development.

Method: Literature review.

Results: See “objectives”, above.

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