Background: Vitamin D3 (25OHD) insufficiency is becoming a public health issue. Adequate 25OHD status during pregnancy may influence the health status of the offspring.
Objective and hypotheses: To evaluate the levels of 25OHD during pregnancy (at 12 weeks) and at 4 years old, assessing seasonality, time of sun exposure, and intake.
Method: Data were obtained from 485 pregnant mothers recruited in Asturias between 2004 and 2007 and their children from of the Environment and Childhood (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) (INMA) Project, a population-based birth cohort study.
Results: The mean maternal age was 32 years (range 1842). 94.1% were term infants and 47.6% female. 25OHD was analyzed in 453 gestations: mean 27.7 ng/ml (range 6.469.5). There was no association between 25OHD in pregnancy and birth somatometry. 25OHD was analyzed at 4 years in 260 children: mean 21.36 ng/ml (range 2.845) and parathyroid hormone 35.36 pg/ml (15.0776.40), with normal calcium and phosphorus. Statistically significant relationship was found between 25OHD in pregnancy and at 4 years (Pearson r 0.257) and each one with size at 4 years (Pearson r 0.167 and 0.190). The 25OHD was lower in winter and spring in gestation and at 4 years. The average pregnant outdoor time was 5 h 35 min (range 00001515 h) and at 4 years 0300 (00210655 h), without association with 25OHD levels. The median estimated VitD intake was 4.63 g/day (range 0.7122.52) at pregnancy and 2.74 g/day (range 0.8112.66) at 4 years.
Conclusion: A high frequency of 25OHD insufficiency/deficiency in pregnancy and at 4 years was found, despite the time of sun exposure as recommended, perhaps due to the latitude of 43°. The estimated intake was lower than recommended in most of the cohort. There is a relationship between levels in pregnancy and at 4 years and both with size at age 4, although not with birth anthropometry.
20 - 22 Sep 2014
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology