Background: Adequate vitamin D level is essential for optimal childs growth. Small for Gestational Age (SGA) is a common cause of short stature in childhood. Being born SGA is associated with a risk of developing insulin resistance.
Objective and hypotheses: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum vitamin D levels in short children born SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and to assess their relationship with insulin sensitivity.
Method: In 59 short prepubertal children: 31 SGA (15 boys) and 28 AGA (14 boys) aged 6.69±2.1 years fasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), glucose, and insulin levels were assessed. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA).
Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D level in SGA children was 22.5±4.6 ng/ml and was significantly higher than in AGA children (15.3±4.6 ng/ml). 74% SGA children showed 25(OH)D level above 20 ng/ml, 10% above 30 ng/ml, 10% below 15 ng/ml, and none below 10 ng/ml. In AGA group only 21% showed 25(OH)D level above 20 ng/ml (none above 30 ng/ml), 36% below 15 ng/ml, and 14% below 10 ng/ml. PTH level did not differ between groups. Mean fasting insulin level and HOMA was significantly higher in SGA group than in AGA group (4.69±1.13 vs 2.74±0.87 mU/l and 0.99±0.26 vs 0.55±0.21). No differences between fasting glucose levels were shown. In SGA children no correlations between fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA, and 25(OH)D levels were found.
Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D levels are prevalent in prepubertal short children. Prepubertal short SGA children show higher vitamin D levels than AGA children.
20 - 22 Sep 2014
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology