Background: Data on prevalence and phenotypic distribution of dyslipidaemia in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is scarce. Studies have shown that lipid abnormality tracks from childhood to adulthood and contributes to atherosclerotic process, therefore initial assessment and follow-up is essential.
Aims: To study the prevalence and phenotypic distribution of dyslipidaemia in children with T1D and compare with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods: A cross-sectional sample of diabetes patients, age 7 18 years on active follow-up between 1st January to 31st December 2014 were recruited. Fasting blood sample were analysed for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). Baseline demographic data and biochemical data was analysed using SPSS version 16.
Results: Total 165 patients were recruited, (T1D: n=115; 69.7%, T2D: n=50; 30.3%). Prevalence of dyslipidemia was 73.3% (n=121) and almost similar in T1D & T2D (71.3% vs 78.0%). T1D had lower mean age at recruitment (13.61 years±2.58 vs 15.36 years±2.00; P<0.001) and longer mean duration of diabetes (5.85±3.69 vs 2.82±2.12; P<0.001) compared to T2D. Phenotypic distribution of dyslipidemia in T1D vs T2D, (LDL≧2.6 mmol/l: 66.1% vs 70.0%; P=0.719), (TG≧1.7 mmol/l: 11.3% vs 42.0%; P<0.001), (HDL<1 mmol/l:4.3% vs 12.0%; P=0.091). T1D & T2D had similar mean LDL (2.92±0.86 vs 3.01±1.06; P=0.56). Mean HbA1c was higher in T1D vs T2D (8.98%±1.96 vs 7.9%±2.27; P=0.095). There were 31 (18.8%) patients aged ≤10 years, mostly T1D (n=28; 24.3%), of which 67.7% had LDL ≧2.6 mmol/l and 87.1% had no family history of lipid disorder.
Conclusions: Patients with T1D in the present study showed higher LDL-C but not triglyceride. Significant proportion of T1D patients less than 10 years of age have elevated LDL-C levels without a family history of lipid disorder.
01 Oct 2015 - 03 Oct 2015