Background: Small for gestational age (SGA) birth size has been associated with various metabolic, hormonal and reproductive problems in later life.
Objective and hypotheses: We aimed to compare differences in sex hormones, uterine and ovarian sizes in SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adolescent girls.
Method: 23 SGA and 47 AGA pubertal 1114 years old girls (median age 13.2±1.94 years, median pubertal stage 4±1) were recruited from the prospective newborn cohort. Sex hormones and gonadal size were analysed in both groups, adjusting for age and pubertal stage. Data are presented as mean and standard deviation.
Results: No significant differences in LH, FSH, oestradiol and SHBG concentrations were found between SGA and AGA groups (4.26±3.80 vs 3.35±2.63 IU/l, P=0.157; 3.79±1.75 vs 4.08±2.33 IU/l, P=0.983; 326.86±208.01 vs 427.45±309.91 pmol/l, P=0.616; 40.83±16.46 vs 44.11±20.76 nmol/l, P=0.881 respectively). SGA girls had significantly higher Testosterone levels (2.27±1.25 vs 1.81±1.00 nmol/l, P=0.007) and Free Androgen Index (FAI, 6.98±6.72 vs 5.67±5.26, P=0.048). Uterine size was significantly smaller in girls born SGA (42.19±28.45 vs 64.45±32.58 cm3, P=0.032). Ovarian volume tended to be smaller as well in girls born SGA (9.15±5.52 vs 12.38±7.47 cm3, P=0.078). Both uterine and ovarian sizes correlated directly with Estradiol levels (r=0.344, P=0.008 and r=0.321, P=0.014). Direct relationship between ovarian size and SHBG levels was also found in both groups combined (r=0.522, P=0.001).
Conclusion: Pubertal SGA girls have higher markers of biochemical hyperandrogenism and smaller uterine size, which might influence future reproductive function in these girls.
Funding: This study was funded by Lithuanian Research Council (grant No. MIP-103/2011) and the Swedish Research Council (No. 7509).
01 - 03 Oct 2015
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology