Background: Neonatal hyperinsulinism is the most frequent cause of neonatal recurrent hypoglycaemia. The persistent form can be explained by mutations of genes involved in beta cell function, whereas the transient form can occur in case of prematurity, low birth weight, macrosomia, perinatal hypoxia, and maternal diabetes.
Objective and hypotheses: As we observed an increase in the incidence of neonatal hyperinsulinism, we hypothesized that potential maternal nutritional risk factors could be associated with this pathology.
Method: Questionnaire relative to dietary habits during pregnancy in mothers of children followed for a transient or persistent neonatal hyperinsulinism compared to mothers of control newborns matched for gestational age and birth weight.
Results: 61 newborns with hyperinsulinism (HI) and 100 controls (C) were included. The occurrence of gestational diabetes was similar between groups. We observed less frequent consumption of low-fat dairy products (P<0.05), fresh legumes (P<0.05), fruits and fruit juice (P<0.05) in mothers of child with HI. They also tended to consume more frequently industrial meals reheated in microwave in their original plastic packaging (P<0.10). We noted a greater gestational weight gain in this group (P<0.05), whereas birth weight was comparable (2870±612 g).
Conclusion: A less healthy diet, qualitatively richer in lipids and industrial meals in plastic packaging, and poorer in fresh fruits and legumes, associated with a greater gestational weight gain, was more frequently found in mothers of newborns with HI, in comparison to controls.
10 - 12 Sep 2016
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology