Background: Skeletal mass approximately doubles at the end of adolescence. Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Vitamin D status may play a role in the development of bone mass.
Objective and hypotheses: The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of different socioeconomic conditions on bone mineral density (BMD) and vitamin D status in healthy female college students and to determine the possible association between Vitamin D status and BMD.
Method: Female college students (n=138) aged between 18 and 22 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Socioeconomic status was determined by a questionnaire in all subjects. Blood samples were obtained for 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) analysis in May. Lumbar spine and total body BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Osteopenia was defined by a Z-score below −2. Female students were grouped into three study groups as low, middle and high according to SES.
Results: Although 25OHD level was found to be lower in females with lower socioeconomic status, there was no significant (P=0.851) difference between the three different socioeconomic levels. Similar results (P>0.05) for total body, lumbar spine BMD values and Z scores were obtained. Frequency of osteopenia was significantly higher (P=0.02) in females belonging low SES. Similar results were obtained for frequency of inadequate daily calcium intake (P=0.02). But, none of the participants have osteoporosis. No correlations were found between BMD, Vitamin D levels and daily calcium intake. Physical activity levels of females were irregular.
Conclusion: Vitamin D status and BMD levels did not show any difference between the study groups of SES in females at the late adolescence. Daily calcium intake was inadequate in the majority of the females. This condition is prominent in females belonging low SES. Osteopenia is more common in same groups as well. Besides, vitamin D status and calcium intake are not related with BMD values in young females.
10 - 12 Sep 2016
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology