Children with diabetes, and particularly those with obesity, have poor glycemic control. They are thus at higher risk of early microvascular complications. Renal tubulointerstitial markers are integral to evaluating diabetic nephropathy. Various biomarkers have been proposed, but their role in the obese pediatric population is uncertain. We investigated renal injury markers in children with diabetes, according to obesity, and determined their role as early predictors of diabetic nephropathy. Fifty-three children and adolescents, diagnosed with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, and 43 control children, aged 7–18 years, were included. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, including six renal injury markers, were compared among subjects according to body mass index and presence of diabetes mellitus. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels were higher in children as compared to those without diabetes. No renal injury markers differed significantly between obese and non-obese children. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, HbA1c remained a significant risk factor for elevated urine NAG. Urine NAG could be a useful indicator of tubulointerstitial damage in children with diabetes in the pre-albuminuric state. Tighter glycemic control appears crucial for avoiding early progression to diabetic nephropathy.
15 Sep 2022 - 17 Sep 2022