Background: Vitamin D (25OHD) insufficiency is becoming a public health issue. Adequate 25OHD status during pregnancy may influence the health status of the offspring.
Objective: To evaluate the levels of 25OHD from gestation to 12 years, assessing seasonality and intake.
Material and methods: Data were obtained from 485 pregnant mothers recruited in Asturias between 2004-2007 and their children from of the Environment and Childhood [INfancia y Medio Ambiente] (INMA) Project, a population-based birth cohort study. Maternal 25OHD levels were analyzed at 12 weeks' gestation and in infancy at 4, 8, and 12 years, as well as maternal age, gestational weeks, gender, seasonality, and vitamin D intake.
Results: The mean maternal age was 32 years (range 18-42). 94.1% of the newborns were term and 47.6% girls. The median of 25OHD in pregnancy was 27.40 ng/ml (range 6.4-66.9), at 4 years 20.90 ng/ml (range 2.77-49.80), at 8 years 25.25 ng/ml (range 8.56-53) and at 12 years 23.00 ng/ml (range 11.00-67.00), being lower in winter and spring, with normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in all of them. The percentages in each of the ages according to the groups of plasma 25OHD levels (Deficiency <20 ng/ml; Insufficiency: 20-29.9 ng/ml; Sufficiency ≥30 ng/ml) are shown in Table 1. The results were presented to the cohort before the age of 8 years, which could have influenced the better 25OHD status at that age, although this was not maintained at 12 years. A statistically significant relationship was found between 25OHD in pregnancy and at 4 and 12 years (rPearson 0.192 and 0.219). The median intake of vitamin D in the diet adjusted for calories in pregnancy was 5.02 µg/day (range 1.57-20.95), at 4 years 2.60 (range 0.96-9.94) and at 8 years 5.13 (range 2.06-12.22), without association with 25OHD levels.
|25OHD Deficiency||25OHD Insufficiency||25OHD|
|N||(< 20 ng/ml)(%)||(20-29,9 ng/ml) (%)||Sufficiency (≥30 ng/ml) (%)|
|12 weeks' gestation||453||27.4||35.3||37.3|
Conclusions: A high frequency of deficient and insufficient levels of 25OHD was detected both in pregnant women and throughout childhood. The estimated intake was lower than recommended in most of the cohort. Periodic nutritional recommendations are necessary for an adequate 25OHD status in childhood.
15 Sep 2022 - 17 Sep 2022