Background: The activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis during the first months both in males(M) and females(F) is named as minipuberty. Urinary gonadotropins (uGn) represent an unexpensive and non-invasive method of assessing pubertal development and they have recently been used also for studying minipuberty.
Aims of the study are: 1) to describe the urinary hormonal pattern (uLH, uFSH, testosterone – uT, oestradiol-uE) during minipuberty in a group of healthy full-term infants. 2) to identify the relationship between urinary hormone levels and environmental factors, anthropometric measurements, anogenital distances (AGD).
Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of healthy singleton full-term infants, AGA. Patients were evaluated soon after birth (T0), at three months (T3) and at six months (T6). Anamnestic data, anthropometric measurements, ano-penile distance (AGD-AP), ano-scrotal distance (AGD-AS) for M, ano-fourchette distance (AGD-AF) and ano-clitoris (AGD-AC) for F, were collected at each time-point. Urine samples were collected at T0, T3 and T6. Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
Results: 139 neonates (91M) were enrolled. The table summaries hormonal values and AGDs in M and F at the three times of the study. For M, statistically significant differences were found for uLH, uFSH, and uT at T0 compared to T3 and T6. For F, uFSH and uE but not uLH at birth were higher, compared to values at T3 and T6. mg n levels along the study both in M and F changes significatively according to: anthropometrics of the infant, maternal age, occupational status of the mother, pre-pregnancy BMI and breast feeding. AGDs also change significantly according to mg n, maternal data and breastfeeding.
|uLH mUI/ml(SD)||0.81 (1.82) * §||0.14(0.19)||0.21(0.22)*||0.13(0.12)||0.18(0.16)§||0.15(0.13)|
|uLFSH mUI/ml(SD)||2.01(3.52) * §||1.33(1.88)° ^||0.92(0.33) *||3.15(3.1)°||0.89(0.56)§||3.62(3.31) ^|
|uT (ng/ml)(SD)||9.95(5.22) * §||\||0.41(0.41)*||\||0.22(0.16)§||\|
Conclusion: The use of mg n is confirmed as a reliable and easy-to-use method even during the first year of life. The trend of mg n during minipuberty seems to be influenced by environmental factors which could have an impact on the subsequent development of the infant.
15 Sep 2022 - 17 Sep 2022