Introduction: Genetics, diet, and physical activity are just a few of the variables that determine child growth rates, but seasonal variations in these variables can also have an impact on growth patterns. Among kids aged four and five, we looked at the seasonality of changes in height, body weight, and BMI.
Methods: This was a pilot study carried out in Palestine at a private school where psychological factors could be ruled out and where all participants had a common background. Data was gathered every season's start for a year, from September 2021 to September 2022. Five readings were taken in all, the first in September 2021 at the beginning of autumn and the other four in 2022 at the beginning of December, March and June. The change in height, weight, and BMI throughout the year was examined using the Friedman test. For pairwise comparisons in post-hoc analysis, Dunn's test was applied if the Friedman test was significant (p ≤ 0.05).
Results: Of 64 children approached, 60 children completed the needed measures throw-out the year and were included in the analysis. 53.3% (32) children aged 4 years and 46.6% (28) aged 5 years. 51% (31) of them were females. Weight increment was statistically significant and was better during Autumn compared to all other seasons and was most significant compared to spring. However, weight change wasn’t significant comparing other seasons. When compared to spring and summer, weight change among males was statistically significant in autumn. While females' weight changes were not significant. In comparison to winter, height change was statistically significant and was better in the autumn and summer. Males' height change was better in autumn than it was in the winter, but it wasn't statistically significant elsewhere or in females. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly different and was higher in Autumn compared to Spring, however no significant change found among other seasons. Alongside with weight and height change, males showed significant increment in BMI during Autumn compared to spring.
Conclusion: In terms of height, weight, and BMI, both the overall participant population and the male participants showed significant changes in the fall; however, the female participants did not exhibit any significant seasonal variations.
21 Sep 2023 - 23 Sep 2023