Background: The development of fetal thyroid gland and its function in fetus and newborn are influenced by maternal iodine supplementation and maternal disorders of thyroid gland. Pregnant and lactating women are considered a risk group, although the Czech Republic ranks among countries with sufficient iodine supply. In case of maternal iodine deficiency, fetus is more susceptible to other factors influencing fetal thyroid gland development and function and also its neurologic development during all phases of fetal growth. Iodine supplementation of a population is mainly detected through urinary iodine concentrations (UIC).
Objective and hypotheses: Iodine status of pregnant women and newborns is still questionable even in countries with sufficient iodine supply. The study search actual data in a mid-european region.
Method: In 2013, we examined concurrently 50 mothers without thyroid disorder and their 50 healthy term newborns. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy was recorded. UIC levels were measured on the day of birth (mothers) and on day 3 (mothers and newborns).
Results: Only 46% of mother declared regular iodine supplementation in the form of iodide or multivitamins with iodine. According to the UIC levels detected, 78% of mothers before delivery suffered from mild to moderate iodine deficiency, 78% of mothers on day 3 showed mild iodine deficiency. Newborn UIC levels on day 3 were in 54% of cases below 100 μg/l.
Conclusion: The maternal UIC did not depend on their declared iodine supplementation. Individual differences in iodine needs cannot be excluded. Results do not prove a strong influence of maternal iodine supplementation on newborn UIC, although newborn iodine status was favourable in mothers with declared regular intake. Iodine substitution during pregnancy and lactation remains essential as prevention of maternal and neonatal health, even in countries with overall sufficient iodine supply.
20 - 22 Sep 2014
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology