Background: There is evidence to suggest an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide even in children and adolescents. It is usually preceded by a period known as prediabetes and other risk factors such as elevated blood pressure, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and family history of diabetes mellitus.
Objective and hypotheses: To determine the number of risk factors for type 2 DM in each subject studied for selected risk factors.
Method: A cross sectional study was carried out in six public secondary schools in Port Harcourt metropolis. Children whose parents gave informed written consents had their bio data, and risk factors for diabetes collected. Blood pressure, FBS, weight and height then BMI were also measured. Children with FBS >5.5 mmol/l had an OGTT done. Data collected were analysed using medcal 3000 to determine BMI and BP percentile, and SPSS 20 to calculate measures of central tendencies of FBS, BP, BMI. Students t-test was used to compare mean values of variables, and P values <0.05 were considered significant.
Results: Eight hundred and eighty children were screened during the study period for four risk factors. The mean FBS was 5.18 mmol/l (range 1.97.3). 17.4% had FBS >5.5 mmol/l. Systolic BP was elevated in 130 (14.8%) subject, while 135 (15.3%) had elevated diastolic BP. 25 (2.6%) were obese, 101 (11.5%) were overweight. Only one female had all four risk factors while 24 (0.03%) subjects had three risk factors for type 2 DM. A total of 60 children had OGTT out of which 10 (6%) had impaired glucose tolerance. Of the 24 subjects with three risk factors, 2 (8.3%) females were in early adolescence, 12 (50%) (two males, ten females in mid adolescence, 10 (41.7%) (five males and females each) in late adolescence.
Conclusion: The population studied showed a large percentage with risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and it is proposed that urgent and efficient measure are taken to reduce the prevalence of this preventable disease and also the long term effect it has on young children.
20 - 22 Sep 2014
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology