Background: The prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease is higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Objective and hypotheses: The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis in children with T1DM according to the presence of diabetes autoantibodies.
Method: This study included 533 (49% female) children with T1DM based on hospital records from a single center. Frequency of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) (n=252), insulin antibodies (IA) (n=250), and islet cell antibodies (ICA) (n=264) determined at T1DM onset were compared with the frequency of positivity of anti-thyroglobulin and/or thyroid peroxidase antibodies (n=404) determined in a follow-up duration of 016.5 years (median 3.2 years).
Results: The mean age of diabetes onset is 8.53±4.11 (range 0.5917.7). GADA, IA, and ICA were positive in 60.3, 31.6, and 54.5% of patients at the onset of diabetes respectively. At least one thyroid autoantibody was positive in 22% (n=89) of the patients during follow-up. This was more frequent in girls (28.9 vs 15.5%, P=0.001) than boys. The percent of autoimmune thyroiditis was 28.0 (n=37) and 10.8 (n=9), in GADA positive and negative patients respectively (χ2=8.950, P=0.003). IA or ICA positivity did not show any significant association with prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (IA positive vs negative 26.9 vs 18.4%, P=0.157 and ICA positive vs negative 23.0 vs 20.2%, P=0.612).
Conclusion: In children with T1DM, GADA positivity carries a higher risk for autoimmune thyroiditis.
20 - 22 Sep 2014
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology