Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency is an important health problem in pregnant women and their infants in sunny countries. The present study evaluated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations in pregnant women and in their newborns and determined the risk factors in LSES cities in Turkey.
Methods: Ninety-seven pregnant women and their newborns were included in the study between December 2012 and February 2013. All of the pregnant women had irregular follow up or had received no antenatal care, were pregnant during summer, had presented to the hospital after 37 weeks of gestation (WG) and had received no vitamin D supplementation. A detailed history was obtained, which included mothers age, number of births and dressing sytle. Maternal and cord blood samples were taken to measure 25(OH)D3 levels.
Results: All of the pregnant women were predominantly LSES, had covered dressing style and none of them had received vitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy. The mean serum 25(OH)D3 level and mean cord blood level of of 97 mothers were 4.97±3.27 and 4.29±2.44 ng/ml respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between maternal serum and umbilical cord 25(OH)D3 levels (r: 0.735, P<0.05). Ninety-five mothers had serum 25(OH)D3 below 20 ng/ml and all cord blood serum 25(OH)D3 levels were below 20 ng/ml. Level of 25(OH)D3 was not correlated with mother age, WG or newborn weight. Serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in primigravida and multigravida were 3.71±1.88 and 5.2±3.4 ng/ml respectively, with a significant difference between them (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Dressing style, not having received vitamin D supplementation and LSES were identified as major risk factors. Vitamin D supplementation campaigns which should cover pregnant women and the newborn to prevent maternal and perinatal vitamin D deficiency should be implemented especially in risk areas.
20 - 22 Sep 2014
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology