ESPE Abstracts (2015) 84 P-3-1120

Description of Patients Diagnosed with Central Diabetes Insipidus, 14 Year Experience at the National Children's Hospital, Costa Rica

Fred Cavallo-Aita & Jiulliana Montenegro-Villalobos

Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, San José, Costa Rica

Background: Diabetes insipidus is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome involving an alteration in water balance. When caused by a deficiency in the production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) it’s called central diabetes insipidus (CDI). It is difficult to establish the cause of CDI in a good proportion of patients and thus classified as idiopathic in 10.4–55.2%, according to various studies. There are no previous studies in our population.

Objective and hypotheses: To describe the epidemiology of patients diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in the National Children’s Hospital, from January 2000 to December 2013. Is thought to be a disease with a low incidence in our country.

Method: A retrospective study based on the clinical records of patients with central diabetes insipidus. Were analysed a total of 30 patients, after exclusion of some records. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of variables, measures of central tendency were used (mean, median and frequencies).

Results: Of the total of 30 patients, there was a sex distribuion of 17 males and 13 females, no statistical difference. The incidence of central diabetes insipidus was of 2.6 cases per 100 000 habitants. The mean age at presentation was 60 months (1–154 months). At diagnosis, 83% of patients reported polyuria and was documented hypernatremia in 100% of cases and hyperosmolarity in 83%. The most common cause of CDI was the immediate posoperative period of suprasellar tumours, in 11 of the 30 patients (36%), which the most frequent was craniopharyngioma (64% of the tumors and 50% of the total CDI). The other most common hormone deficiency added to the CDI was central hypothyroidism, in a total of 11 patients.

Conclusion: The CDI in Costa Rica is rare problem occurring in childhood at a mean age of 5 years. The most common cause are suprasellar tumours, of which the most common is the craniopharyngioma.

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