Objectives: Dyslipidemia begins and continues in youth and is a major risk factor for adult-onset cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and trend of dyslipidemia in Korean youth and its trends for 10 years.
Methods: Study subjects were Korean youth aged 10-18 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 7,466 eligible participants (3,962 boys, 53.2%) with available fasting lipid profile were enrolled. The KNHANES data for 10 years from 2008 to 2017 were divided into five groups at two-year intervals (2008-09, 2010-11, 2012-13, 2014-15, 2016-17). Dyslipidemia was defined using the 2011 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) criteria: hypercholesterolemia, total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL; hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride ≥ 130 mg/dL; hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, HDL cholesterol < 40 mg/dL; hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dL; and hyper-non-HDL-cholesterolemia, non-HDL cholesterol ≥ 145 mg/dL.
Results: The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 6.7% in 2008-09, 6.5% in 2010-11, 6.6% in 2012-13, 7.8% in 2014-15 and 10.7% in 2016-17 (P for trend <0.001). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 14.7% in 2008-09 and 13.0% in 2016-17 (P for trend = 0.389). The prevalence of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia was 16.4% in 2008-09 and 10.2% in 2016-17 (P for trend <0.001). The prevalence of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia was 5.4% in 2008-09 and 7.6% in 2016-17 (P for trend = 0.080). The prevalence of dyslipidemia defined by non-HDL level was 9.0% in 2008-09 and 10.9% in 2016-17 (P for trend = 0.105). In logistic regression analyses, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was increasing after adjusting age, sex and body mass index (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.22, P <0.001). In contrast, the prevalence of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia was decreasing tendency after adjusting age, sex, and body mass index (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.87, P <0.001). Except for hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, female predominance was observed.
Conclusion: In Korean youth, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia showed increasing tendency over the last 10 years. It was obvious especially in female population. However, the prevalence of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia showed decreasing tendency over the last 10 years. Further research is needed to investigate associated factors with this trend.
19 Sep 2019 - 21 Sep 2019