Background: Several studies have shown that born small for gestational age (SGA) children have earlier precocious puberty, progress faster, and are less likely to gain target height in adults than children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Moreover, SGA children are more prone to metabolic disorders - obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Objective: To compare the physical development status, serum lipid levels, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin levels and HOME-IR in SGA and AGA groups with central precocious puberty (CPP).
Methods: A retrospective analysis of 322 girls with CPP was divided into AGA group (304 cases) and SGA group (18 cases) according to gestational age and birth weight. The chronological age, bone age and Tanner stage were matched in the two groups. Physical index such as height, weight and BMI, as well as blood lipid levels, fasting blood glucose, insulin levels and HOME-IR were compared between the two groups.
Results: Height, weight, and BMI in the SGA group (129.44 ± 8.06 cm, 25.83 ± 4.16 kg, and 15.40 ± 2.08 kg/m 2 ) were significantly lower than those in the AGA group (135.00 ± 7.63 cm, 31.50 ± 6.31 kg, and 17.16 ± 2.31 kg/m 2), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The fasting blood glucose, insulin levels and HOME-IR in the SGA group were lower than those in the AGA group (4.66±0.52 mmol/L vs. 4.73±0.44 mmol/L, 5.65±3.68 mIU/L vs. 6.81±3.56mIU/L, 1.20±0.85 vs. 1.44±0.78, respectively), but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The triglyceride level in the SGA group was higher than that in the AGA group. The levels of total cholesterol, HDL and LDL in SGA group were lower than those in AGA group. There was no significant difference in triglyceride and HDL between the two groups (P>0.05). The difference between cholesterol and LDL was statistically significant (P<0.05). However, the blood lipids and blood glucose in both groups were within the normal range.
Conclusion: The chronological age and bone age of precocious puberty in SGA and AGA were similar, however, the height, weight and BMI of the SGA group were significantly lower than those of the AGA group. Therefore, children in SGA with CPP have a higher risk of short stature in adulthood. In this study, blood glucose and lipid metabolism were normal in the two groups, but it is necessary to regularly follow-up and assess growth and metabolic markers in SGA children.
19 - 21 Sep 2019
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology