ESPE Abstracts (2014) 82 P-D-3-1-701

Changing Presentation of Type 1 Diabetes to a Tertiary Paediatric Centre

Niamh Mc Grath, S M Mc Glacken-Byrne, C P Hawkes & N P Murphy


Children’s University Hospital, Temple St, Dublin, Ireland


Background: The prevalence of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing and the age at presentation is falling. Late presentation with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is more common in younger children who are at increased risk of cerebral oedema.

Objective and hypotheses: To describe the clinical presentation of new onset T1DM to our centre and report time to diagnosis, incidence of DKA, requirement for intensive care and complications.

Method: Retrospective case review of all children with new onset T1DM from 2004–2012 at The Children’s University Hospital, Temple Street, Dublin. DKA was classified as mild (pH<7.3), moderate (pH<7.2) and severe (pH<7.1).

Results: Over the study period 281 patients (129 males) presented with new onset T1DM (87 0–5 years, 120 6–11 years, and 74 12–16 years). Twenty-two patients presented in 2004 compared with 46 in 2012. Mean age at diagnosis was 8.8 years (range 0.66–15.6 years). Most (95%) presented with classical symptoms. DKA was seen in 31% of the cohort at presentation (45.9% mild, 26.4% moderate, and 27.5% severe) but occurred more commonly in younger children (68% of those <2 years). Eleven percent of all children and 44% of those <2 years required intensive care. Two patients (0.71%) developed cerebral oedema. The mean time to diagnosis from first contact with health care professional (HCP) was 20.6 days (range 2–140 days). Factors associated with early diagnosis were having a family member with type 1 diabetes (P=18) and older age.

Conclusion: The incidence of T1DM in our centre is rising rapidly and the age at presentation is falling. Younger children tend to present later and are more often in DKA. Recognition is more difficult in the young child. Greater HCP awareness and implementation of national guidelines for management of DKA are critical to good outcomes.

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