ESPE Abstracts (2014) 82 P-D-3-1-702

Abnormal Blood Glucose as a Prognostic Factor for Adverse Clinical Outcome Among Children with Acute Medical Conditions in Ghana

Emmanuel Ameyaw


Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana


Background: Abnormal blood glucose in sick children is known to be common and carries a poor prognosis being associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

Aim: To compare the clinical outcome in children admitted to the PEU of KATH with normal and abnormal blood glucose (hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia).

Method: Prospective cohort study involving 430 children, 215 each with normal and abnormal blood glucose, selected from screening a total of 800 participants. They were matched for age group and diagnosis and clinical outcome compared. Participants were followed up till discharge. Complications, mortality and final diagnoses were recorded.

Results: Twenty seven percent (116/430) of patients had at least one complication on admission and 22% (96/430) had abnormal blood glucose (P=0.000). The commonest complications were shock, intravascular haemolysis and acute renal failure. At the end of the study, 89% (382/430) were discharged well, 9% (40/430) died and 2% (8/430) were discharged with complication(s). 75% (6/8) of those discharged with complication(s), and 75% (30/40) of those who died had abnormal blood glucose (P<0.001). Of those with abnormal blood glucose who died, 36% (10/28) had hypoglycaemia and 11% (20/187) had hyperglycaemia (P=0.000). The risk ratio of patients with abnormal blood glucose dying was three (95% CI: 1.5–6.0) (P<0.001). The risk ratio of developing a complication was 4.8 (95% CI: 3.1–7.5) (P=0.000).

Conclusion: Abnormal blood glucose was a common finding in children admitted to PEU, KATH, with acute medical conditions and was associated with increased complications including mortality. Hypoglycaemia on admission was a greater predictive factor of complications and mortality than hyperglycemia.

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