Background: Global prevalence of childhood obesity has increased from 4.2 to 6.7% in recent decades. Dyslipidaemia predisposes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. Family history (FH) of CVD is used as a screening tool for dyslipidaemia in children/ adolescents, however with controversial sensitivity.
Objective and hypotheses: Purpose of the study was to identify and examine the effects of possible cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in overweight/obese (OW/O) and normal weight (NW) children/adolescents with FH of CVD.
Method: Anthropometrical, biochemical indices, FH of CVD were obtained from 68 healthy children/adolescents aged 713 years old. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis.
Results: 35/68 were OW/O, 33 were NW.15/35 OW/O and 8/33 NW had positive FH of CVD. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), waist circumference (WC), triglycerides (Tg), hsCRP, fasting blood insulin (FBI) and HOMA-IR were found statistically significantly higher in the OW/O group compared to the NW one. High density lipoprotein (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A (Apo(A)) were statistically significantly lower in the OW/O children /adolescents compared to their normal peers. Paradoxically, total Cholesterol (TCh) was statistically significantly higher in the NW children/adolescents. FBI, hsCRP levels and WC were significantly higher in the OW/O children/adolescents with FH of CVD compared to the ones without. No difference was found between OW/O and NW groups in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), fasting glucose, apolipoprotein B (Apo(B)) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). TCh and SBP were found to be independently associated with obesity (negatively, OR=1.965(1.935, 2.97), P<0.031 and positively OR=1.045(1.016, 1.074), P<0.002 respectively). FH of CVD was not related to any CV risk factors. There was a trend that controls have breastfed longer and their parents had lower BMI values.
Conclusion: Dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, elevated SBP and increased WC appear in OW/O children/adolescents. Using a FH of CVD to screen for dyslipidaemia misses a significant percentage (3060%) of children with dyslipidaemia. Universal screening of lipid profiles in children is recommended. Preventing obesity can lead to lower CV risk in children/adolescents.
01 - 03 Oct 2015
European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology